Friday, May 17, 2019

Inventions Are Not Just Scientific Advancement but Also Cultural Practices

Technological inventions ar non erect scientific advancement solely also cultural practices The paper is to explain Hugh Mackays arguments regarding how technology is always cultural through with(predicate) and through. In relation to his conceptions, cassette-based Walkman, Discman and iPod are used as examples to illustrate how technological inventions are non just scientific advancement still also cultural practices. In the book Consumption and Everyday animateness published in 1997, Hugh Mackay argued that technology is cultural through and through, stating that every technological artifacts is totally tie in with and influenced by refinement.The argument can be analyzed in more details by applying the guinea pig of portable music players (PMPs) to the Circuit of Culture. The Circuit consists of five major cultural executees, which are production, regulation, representation and inlet and indistinguishability of certain artifacts. The Circuit can start at any point, a nd whiz must go through every process when studying each case completely. As all parts are connected with each other, it may appear again in other parts (Martin, 2003). To begin with, the process of production is organized culturally. In the past, Sony did not intend to do market research until the Walkman is introduced.Now every companies fill in the importance of market research (will be discussed later). Besides, Sony designers enjoy great functional and occupational status that dis power their work (du Gay, P. , 1997, p. 58-59, 62-63). As the Walkman and hence Sony becomes so successful, designers and programmers in technological artifacts producers like Microsoft and Apple are highly valued. Similarly, 1 of the reasons that why iPod becomes popular is that Apple performs excellent market researches and provides a comfortable working milieu for its designers.Representation of PMPs refers to how they are imaged and defined. Since the Walkman was initially designed for young music-listeners, its advertisements often focus on the technical qualities of the Walkman small but with high sound quality, which is unbelievable at that time (du Gay, P. , 1997, p. 26). But then the market research shows that not only youngsters but also those who participate in outdoorsy activities consume the Walkman. Therefore Sony started to customize the Walkman to see different markets in Japan and all over the world.For example, solar-powered, water proof and other special designs for outdoor activities are then developed for hikers and divers (du Gay, P. , 1997, p. 65-68). This not only shows that how advertising can shape a product and open new market, but also how important market research is knowing what consumers exigency is the key to produce a popular product. Furthermore, although the Walkman was originally decided for portable music, but as measure goes and technology advances, different consumers now use PMPs for different purposes.For example, most teenagers may use it to listen to their have music. For clergies and pious believers, they may be used to listen to the scripture or sermon. For hardworking learners, they may control learning when they are travelling by comprehend to talking-books. Sometimes even museum or gallery visitors helper themselves to focus on their trip or enhance their imagination by listening to some scenery music. In fact, how PMPs were consumed can show its identity. PMPs associate different people and groups with the environment differently.According to Sonys possess market research into the Walkman usage, it can be divided to two parts, namely escape and enhancement. The spring one refers to the most common usage listening to music or talking-books by PMPs while travelling, which usually provide an opportunity for one to enjoy his or her small world, but disconnect one from the surrounding background music and hence the society temporarily. The latter one refers to using PMPs to focus on ones work or just relax, which actually help one to strengthen ones connection to the environment or the productivity in workplace (du Gay, P. 1997, p. 92-94). While radio and telecasting encouraging mansion-based consumption, PMPs has introduced a new culture of consumption and the way of listening to music private listening at public place, which has blurred the difference of public and private place. In the past, it was widely current that public place refer to space shared by everyone in the community, while private place refer to space holded by particular person or group, say, ones home (du Gay, P. , 1997, p. 113-114). But now, everyone with a PMP can enjoy his or her own music or channels in public place.If one plays his or her PMSs too loudly, it may disturb the one around him or her. Therefore, in some place, for example the London Underground, in that respect exist regulations limiting the maximum volume of PMPs (du Gay, P. , 1997, p. 117). And in Hong Kong, there are several quit e carriages in former KCR discouraging people from making noise in the carriages. Apart from the Circuit of Culture, the transformation from cassette-based Walkman and the Discman to iPod (and smart phone) is cultural, too.Firstly, the size of PMPs is getting smaller so that it is easier to carry in todays busy and crowded cities. Secondly, the mode of playing and selecting music has changed, too. Using the Walkman and the Discman, one could only forward or backward the content linearly, or else one may need to make his or her own cassette or CD. But nowadays one may set up his or her own playlist by using iTunes to combine ones favourite songs from different albums easily kinda of bringing portable hardware like cassettes and CDs out.Last but not least, iPod has much more functions than the Walkman and the Discman, such as photo viewer, calendar, stopwatch and many games. All these changes are responding the modern culture advocating for convenience, freedom and individualism. To conclude, the production of a product is closely related with its consumption, and market research is the bridge between the two that helps customize the identity of the product and hence helps the company to represent it by advertisement.The invention of PMPs has developed a new culture of listening to music, which is a reflection of our modern culture but for the good of the community, its usage needs to be regulated so as to protect the right of every users and non-users nearby. Finally, it shows us that these technological inventions are not just scientific advancement but also about cultural practices all the time. Reference du Gay, P. , Hall, S. , James, N. , Mackay, H. and Negus, K. 1997 Doing heathenish Studies The Story of the Sony Walkman, London Sage Martin, F. (ed. ) 2003 Interpreting Everyday Culture, London Arnold. 176-178

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.