Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Pharaohs Of The 18th Dynasty - 928 Words

Since the first Ancient Egyptian, Pharaoh Menes, placed himself on the throne, the pharaohs were considered to be both divine deities as well as mortal rulers. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines prophet as â€Å"a member of some religion who delivers messages that are believed to have come from God† Did that make Pharaoh Amenhotep IV aka Akhenaten a prophet? Defying centuries of traditional worship of the Egyptians, the mid-14th century BCE Pharaoh Akhenaten decreed during his reign that his subjects were to worship only one god; the sun-disk Aten. Was this a direct message from the gods or were there other political reasons at play. The pharaohs of the 18th dynasty 1550-1307 BCE had expanded Egypt’s wealth; conquering Palestine, Syria, plus securing the gold mines of Nubia, which made her the wealthiest country in the world. With 2,000 years of experience behind her, Egyptian forces were able to push back the Hittites, Libyans, and other tribes who stood in the w ay of their development. Amongst the progression was Amun, a major Egyptian deity, who after the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos, became heightened after his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Re. In gratitude for their successes, the pharaohs offered treasures to the god Amun-Ra, increasing the wealth and influence of the priesthood. The deity acquired national importance that alarmed Amenhotep III and his son Amenhotep IV due to the escalating powers of the priests of Amun. The Karnak Amun-RaShow MoreRelatedBiography of Queen Nafertiti975 Words   |  4 PagesQueen Nefertiti 1. My historical figure’s name is Queen Nefertiti, which means the beautiful one has come† 2. Queen Nefertiti ruled alongside her husband, Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) of the 18th dynasty, New kingdom (r. 1372-1355 BCE) of Ancient Egypt. 3. Her dates of birth and death are thought to have been somewhere around (ca. 1370 BC – ca. 1330 BC) 4. Nefertiti and her husband associated themselves with the sun god â€Å"Aten.† Nefertiti and her husband, Akhenaten were best known for the Amarna HeresyRead MoreKing Tutankhamun1035 Words   |  5 Pagescalled the New Kingdom because it was when the pharaohs united upper and lower Egypt into one kingdom with the capital being Memphis near current day Cairo. The reason I chose to write a research paper on King Tut is because he is one of the most well known pharaohs of ancient Egypt. Tutankhamun is most well known only by the discovery of his intact tomb in 1922 by Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon. King Tut was born in 1343 B.C. into the 18th Dynasty. Early in his life Tutankaten meaning the LivingRead MoreAncient Egyp Gods and Godesses: From A to Z1331 Words   |  6 Pagesjourney to the afterlife. He was portrayed man with a jackal’s head, or in jackal form holding a flail in the crook of his arm and wearing a ribbon. In the Old Kingdom he was the most important God, where he was associated with the burial of the pharaoh. He was very important because the Egyptians worshiped two things: 1. the gods and 2. The dead. The ancient Egyptians also believed in the afterlife. So another reason why Anubis was so important was because, on your travel to the afterlife he wasRead MoreEssay on Development of Ancient Egypt823 Words   |  4 Pagesand decided what goods and services they were to produce. All the decisions were made by the government. Egypt belonged to a living god (Pharaoh). The Pharaoh had a bureaucracy, and 2 viziers, one for each half of Egypt. Civil servan ts gave each farmer a certain amount of grain from the state granary. The purpose of economy was to provide luxury for the Pharaoh. The most important aspect of the Egyptian economy was agriculture, which was the backbone of Egyptian prosperity. Egyptian civilizationRead MoreEssay about Akhenaten: Heretic Man or Visionary Pharaoh? 1235 Words   |  5 Pages Pharaohs were governors of the Ancient Egyptian realm who broadcasted themselves as sons of gods who upheld Ma’at – the Egyptian order of life. Most pharaohs ruled in a typical and expected way carrying the beliefs of their ancestors- though not all ruled this way. Akhenaten of the 18th Dynasty New Kingdom was not an â€Å"archetypal† pharaoh as seen through his goal to change Egyptian religion from polytheism to monotheism and through his building project in Amarna. Though he used traditional meansRead MoreThe Development of Religious Archetecture in New Kingdom Essay649 Words   |  3 PagesThe expansion of the political and economical power during the New kingdom, led to the devotion of resources to the religious architecture; numerous new temples were constructed while the pre-existing temples were renovated. Individual Pharaohs endeavored to out do their ancestors, not only in the construction of their own mortuary temples, but also in the establishment of worship temples of their deities. Kings of this period abandoned the pyramid complexity of the earlier ages and constructed theirRead MoreThe Discovery Of Being Mummified Essay1047 Words   |  5 Pages Do you know the process of being mummified? Well I will tell you all about the process of being mummified. When pharaohs or very rich people die in Egypt they take all of their organs out except for their heart. They were then wrapped in linen cloth and put in a sarcophagus. (A sarcophagus was a coffin.) Before they are placed in the linen cloth they are given an amulet to keep evil away. They are said to have an afterlife. In their afterlife they are said to live eternally. The first type ofRead MoreAnalysis Of The Sahara Savannas ( The Nucleus Of Civilization )755 Words   |  4 Pagesmartial style â€Å"Kuta,† was the name of the style practiced by the Pharaohs; Priest and their bodyguards. Another so-called style was Sebeka or the â€Å"Cha† a study of decapitations (In similar fashion like the Bushido’ coded Samurai). Minus ancient Egypt’s mythology of great warrior gods and goddesses, Egypt or Kemet dynasties were led by powerful kings and queens of outstanding warrior ship: Menes-Aha (Narmer), first king of the first dynasty 3100 BC. Egyptologist recognizes him as the last Scorpion KingRead MoreAkhenaten essay721 Words   |  3 Pagesa Ruler of Egypt during the 18th Dynasty. He rose to the throne as Amenhotep IV, following his father Amenhotep III. Akhenatens short-term sovereignty, only about 16 years, emerged during the time when â€Å"Egyptian history and many scholars continue that Akhenaten was responsible for this decline.† Akhenaten, probably in a change to diminish the administrative influence of the Priests, introduced the worship of one God, the Aten, or Sun disk. This meant that the Pharaoh, not the clergy, was the personalRead MorePleas of a Desperate Queen1104 Words   |  5 Pagesits absolute peak during the New Kingdom and she most likely felt like the weight o f the kingdom was falling upon her shoulders. Egypt had over the last centuries such a strong history of power and stability and after the death of Tutankhamen the 18th dynasty Egyptian empire began to collapse. Undoubtedly, I can very much sympathize with the queen and her feelings at the time she wrote her letters to the king. She lost her husband and essentially stable control of her empire in a very short amount

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The National Standards Of The World - 834 Words

Everyday Americans all over the nation proudly wave a red, white and blue flag. A flag with thirteen horizontal stripes, equal in width, and fifty white five-pointed stars in a blue rectangle in the upper-left corner. A flag that symbolizes the unity and strength of the country. As the flag is flown all over the nation it proudly holds the name of the American Flag. As many people see the flag some may begin to wonder why the American Flag is red, white, and blue and what the meaning of the flag is. The United States Flag is the third oldest of the National Standards of the world (USA Citylink). It was first adopted on June 14, 1777 by the Marine Committee of the Second Continental Congress. They adopted a resolution establishing an official flag for the new nation. The resolution stated, â€Å"Resolved, that the flag of the United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field representing a new constellation.† (Gr eenstein) The flag was first flown on August 3, 1777 the site of the present city of Rome, New York. It has emerged triumphantly from eight great National Conflicts. It flew at Saratog, Yorktown, Palo Alto, Gettysburge, Minala bay, Chateau-Thierry, and Iwo Jima. The American Flag bears witness to the development of our national boundaries, natural resources, and the structure of our civilization. (USA Citylink) Since 1777 the flag has undergone several revisions to reach its current design. Between 1777Show MoreRelatedNational Standards And Public Education1453 Words   |  6 Pagesabout the standards and curriculum of public education. â€Å"And for as long as American have fought the culture wars, they have debated the role of education, the institution most essential to ensuring the reproduction of national identity.† (Hartman, 2013) This essay will evaluate the sides for and against the creation of national standards in public education. The high stakes world of public e ducation has created great concern along with trepidation about the future of the educational standards, as aRead MoreEssay about High Stakes Testing1323 Words   |  6 PagesHigh Stakes Testing In 1997, President Bill Clinton stated that the United States needed, â€Å" a national crusade for education standards - not federal government standards, but national standards, representing what all our students must know to succeed in the knowledge economy of the twenty-first century†(http://books.nap.edu/books/0309062802/html/13.html). The way to succeed in this journey is through standardized testing that results in consequences for teachers and students. ThroughoutRead MoreAdvantages and barriers of harmonizing International Financial Reporting Standards throughout the world1065 Words   |  5 Pagestrade and capital flows that has occurred over the previous two decades has increased the desire to harmonise accounting standards across the globe. The appeal of international accounting harmonization has been extensively discussed. Numerous academics Ali, J M (2005), Adhikari and Tondkar (1992), Saudagaran (1997) argue that adopting International Financial Reporing Standards (IFRS) would bring great benefits to society, such as comparability of statements between countries, progression and developmentRead MoreCable Codes Essay690 Words   |  3 PagesRobin Prather NT1310 Week 2 Exercise April 10, 2013 Cabling Design, Standards, Codes and Definitions 1. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Five engineering societies and three U.S. government agencies founded the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ANSI’s mission is to encourage voluntary compliance with standards and methods. 2. Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) The EIA is organized along speciï ¬ c product and market lines that allow each EIA sector to be responsiveRead More The Greenhouse Gas Protocol1577 Words   |  7 Pagesestablishment of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol), which has developed protocols, standards and guidelines for the objective. What is the GHG Protocol? The GHG Protocol is the most widely used and international accepted accounting tool or methodology to quantify, and manage GHG emissions. It serves as the foundation for nearly every GHG standard and program in the world - from the International Standards Organization (ISO) to The Climate Registry - as well as hundreds of GHG inventories preparedRead MoreThe World Trade Organization ( Wto ) Essay1508 Words   |  7 Pagesgrowth within international trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) and standard of living (measured by Human development Index). Globalisation in relation to Indonesia has greatly expanded the country’s international relationships, improved standard of living for the nation’s population and improved economic growth through assistance from strategies implemented to aid development. These strategies include Indonesia joining the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and introducing stimulating macroeconomic policiesRead MoreAmerican Religion And The American O f American Culture And Spirit By Harold Koh And Ted Bromund1658 Words   |  7 Pagesthey know how the world really works, and only they know how it should be worked. So the American Exceptionlism is the result of American culture and spirit. Harold Koh and Ted Bromund are keeping different opinions based on the influence of American Exceptionlism. It is a debate between â€Å"pure† virtues and â€Å"both good and bad†. In my opinion, American Exceptionalism has both good and bad sides and we should try to reduce the double standards by following better angles of national nature. In the article-America’sRead MoreGdp, Is It a Useful Measure of Living Standards?1356 Words   |  6 PagesWhy is GDP per capita useful as a measure of living standards? What are the limitations of GDP per capita as a comparable measure of living standards? Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the monetary value of final goods and services produced in a given year by factors of production within a country. GDP reports are released on the last day of each quarter, reflecting the previous quarter. Therefore, it is measured on a quarterly basis and measures the level of economic growth in different countriesRead MoreGdp, Is It a Useful Measure of Living Standards?1347 Words   |  6 PagesWhy is GDP per capita useful as a measure of living standards? What are the limitations of GDP per capita as a comparable measure of living standards? Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the monetary value of final goods and services produced in a given year by factors of production within a country. GDP reports are released on the last day of each quarter, reflecting the previous quarter. Therefore, it is measured on a quarterly basis and measures the level of economic growth in different countriesRead MoreEuropea Vs Standard-Setting Model933 Words   |  4 Pagescontinents for setting the standards for wireless systems. The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is responsible for setting standards for all telecommunication related medium and materials. The main role of TIA’s is to create a forum for participants as well as to exchange information and also work out for the detailed specifications. It is suppose to publish as a voluntary standard when a particular proposal gains solid industry support which becomes standard-setting environment favoring

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

After the Battle Free Essays

A jumble of limbs and skin, not that I knew it, I was just another fragment of the landscape, a surface of khaki and blood, surrounded the shore, clouded a dusky pink where a ship sat deserted and alone. Sand gatherings were sleek as they followed the wind and flustering specs as sharp as glass, were deciding where to settle, inspecting every body, join it for a while, but would soon be gone. Now my clothes are crusted with blood, a gunshot so neat can rip through your body; like a mole it burrow’s within the depths of flesh, blood and bone, stopping at nothing to pass to the other side. We will write a custom essay sample on After the Battle or any similar topic only for you Order Now A gunshot so destructive, can take no longer than a fraction of a millisecond, to puncture your heart, to suck the air from your lungs and leave the blood to empty your veins hour after hour. Hour after hour†¦its time to bleed. I could no longer feel the bitter sting of the burning sand on my open wounds, nor the suffocating inner walls of the tunnels, carved by a bullet, still seeping. All I could feel was a general ache, the fact that I’m still alive, seems inadequate. I feel like a tap that has been left on, drip, drip, waiting for my life, to be effortlessly, cut off. I could well be melting and the taste of the fluids dripping from my face is recognisable, I am drowning in my own blood, sweat and tears. Hesitating to open my eyes, I think of a rusty gate as the weight is so difficult to lift, secured with glue-like mucus, sharp and jagged in some places, my eyelids seem to be made of metal, brittle and disabled by age and rust. How long had I been here? Had I grown old in this battle? I feel altogether robotic, like a machine that had been broken, no longer a human but just another tool for those who are better than I am, either them or the person left in me gave me the strength to open my eyes, as that gateway is like lifting numerous tonnes of weight. But to my dismay all I saw were gashes of light that came to me like a stampede, the sand was on me and everywhere, each grain an annoying little bee, my eyes become a hive of little sand and blinding white, just being in existence. I sharply shut them again, I’m back in my own little world, but is that place really where I’m needed? Again, the shutter doors must open, the jagged edge is now broken, it seems a great weight off my mind when the entrance is clear, the gate is now satisfactory and lifts quite swiftly, I am free, freed into what? I’m stumped between a prison and a mass A and E. Everything around me is death, leads to death or inspires it. Ghoulish faces looked at me from all around, but with no expression. Their features lie beneath the murky layer of dust and dirt. One who was settled very close to me, has deep red stains all around his mouth and nose, it is visible to see the dried out tracks where blood had quickly escaped through his lips and nostrils, and even faint fingerprints where he must have rapidly checked the bleeding. He had been shot only once, in his neck, one move for one life and that touching of his face was likely to be the last move he ever made. His right hand lay on the sand, next to his neck, his fingertips too, tinted with his own blood. I suddenly realise that something was holding me up, I couldn’t understand why I hadn’t known this before, as it was far too close to my skin considering my vest, shirt and thick jacket, soon my awareness makes it somewhat painful. The sharp jagged material had formed a spear, and it took a moment to think about getting myself out of this awkward position. The gunshots in my leg and side were holding me back, but I had to use anything else I had in the world to push me away from this pain. †¦I can see my wife, that blinding white is now lighting up her big brown eyes, those same eyes that believed so much in me all that time ago, stand right before me as if they never left†¦ If this was all I had, it had to be enough to get me through this day; I must survive, if only for that. Stand up. I hesitantly move my boot soles onto to the flattest sand I can find, even now my leg is vibrating with pain, but I must go on. Stand up! Come on man! You are weak! You’re no use to any of us down there! I won’t ask you again boy! My knees unbend themselves and some miracle had led me to my feet, from where I immediately fall into the almost alight sand bed, it agitatedly buzzed around me, stinging and biting on any flesh available. But it was the distinct scream that will always haunt my mind, I didn’t before this imagine I would ever fear my own voice, as it shattered the silence I lay hoping and praying it would not wake anybody up, I preferred to be alone. Or close to it, as my gaze now met that of another pair of eyes drained of all emotion. I looked at him, I wanted him to look unhappy, I wanted to feel sympathy, but it looked at me with pride, it had died in honour, it had done his duty, so nothing mattered. I reached out and gently pulled his eyelids over those misty eyes, and already began to miss him. I looked over him towards the admirable surroundings, where I always wanted to come, huge cliffs towered above me, crowned with beautiful plants, the vague outlines of which I saw swaying, almost dancing beneath the beautiful sunlight. The heat had done nothing but added to my pain, but the sky now glowed, its rich blue tones comforted me, I had done well, this I knew as I released my thoughts into the cloudless sky, where I stayed, ’til the end. How to cite After the Battle, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Private School Teachers Strike in Oman

Question: Discuss about the Private School Teachers Strike in Oman. Answer: Introduction: Oman face various industrial disputes yearly as the result of employee strikes across the sectors. In Oman, teachers, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) employees, health workers and even other company worker have always down their tools striking for poor working conditions, salaries and wage increment, leave, promotion and even hours of work reduction (Sunil and Vaidya 2016). This has created increased pressure on the Oman industrial disputes handling. Fruitful dispute resolution required essential venture of cash, energy alongside time in the country due to the rampancy of industrial disputes (Al-Mahrooqi, Abrar-Ul-Hassan and Asante 2012). Navigating of these clashes in Oman has been significantly condensed especially where a business implements a detailed or widespread internal programme for effective management of any emerging disputes. The Oman disputes generally need a significant investment of time for preparing documentation. This is because the Court give preferences to well-organized documentary evidence. In Oman, pursuing a court action without sufficient preparation might not only assist the parties to a dispute to reach a satisfactory resolution. On the basis on several years of advising as well as representing firms from numerous industry sectors, Curtis has set out key suggestions for successful dispute management (Naithani and Jha 2009). Trade Union A trade union is an organization that has members who are normally employees or workers and it serves to oversee the members interest at work by undertaking activities such as negotiating agreements with the respective employers on working condition, pay and welfare. The MD 570(2012) has propagated the creation, the operation as well as the registering trade consortia, labor unions as well as Oman General Federation trade unions. Based on this framework, a labor union in Oman is formed by private sector associations that has an employee strength of twenty-five and above. The trade union acquires a status of an independent legal identity upon registration. Apart from having a minimum of twenty-five employees, a labor union becomes a legible for registering after drafting a decree alongside all the necessary documents as outlined in Article 5 of the 2012 MD. The OLL propagated by Royal Decree No. 35 of 2013 (OLL) as revised allows employees to form amongst themselves labor unions or consortia for the objectives of defending their rights, shielding their welfares (interest), representing them in all issues linked to their wellbeing and improving their financial as well as social status (Curtis, M.-P. and . M. L. 2013). Article eight of the 2012 MD holds that a duly registered labor union has the right to exercise certain rights including representing its memberships and defending their interest, representing any of its memberships upon their demand, gathering the association dues as well as subscription fixed for the affiliation, and exercising any action linked to the promotion as well as safeguard of the members interest and rights. Strike is the refusal to work which is organized by a body of employees or trade union as a form of remonstration as an attempt to gain concessions or a concession from employers. The strike has been rampant in Oman across the sectors including education, businesses, and health sector just to mention a few (Sunil 2016). The Oman have subsequently established laws relating to the labor disputes as well as regulation of peaceful strikes, however, the strike has remained a topical issue in Oman that requires a comprehensive revisit of strikes against the relevant laws. The labor conflicts settlement of, collective bargaining and nonviolent strikes are overseen by the OLL. It was propagated by Royal Decree 35 of 2003. It has been modified (the Labor Laws). They are also governed by the MD (Ministerial Decision) 294/2006, the MD (Ministerial Decision) supplied pursuant to the OLL. The Oman Labor Laws read together with MD provides a procedure for holding strike in Oman. It provides the workers enjoy the right to participate in a nonviolent strike to demand the improvement of conditions of work. Nevertheless, boycotts undertaken by workers employed in organizations that provide necessities or essential services are considered illegal. Together with the Labor Laws, the MD provides the procedure for workers to hold a strike. The workers union or representatives have to issue a written notice of their employees intention to begin strike alongside the planed date of go-slow to the establishment at least three weeks before the commencement of the strike. The notification has to set forth the rationale for holding the strike in addition to the demands for the strikes by the employees. The Ministry of Manpower (MOM) together with relevant local authorities of the government must be furnished with the copy of the notice. Any union or representatives of employees that fail to follow the above forgoing procedure shall render the strike illegal shifting the period of the strike to be regarded as leave without pay. Moreover, a strike shall be called off instantaneously after commencement of the settlement process by the parties in accordance with Article twenty-three of the Ministerial Decision. Legal Issues and Need for Trade Union The legal issues will first to determine whether right procedure was followed by the Oman Private School prior to striking as outlined in Labor Laws as propagated by Royal Decree 35/2003 (the Labor Laws) and MD 294/2006. Once it is determined that the strike was legal, the focus will be determine whether the employer complied with relevant chapters and articles in Labor Laws especially sections on leave, hours of work, salaries, health insurance, and promotion. To this end, let us now look at each issue raised against the provisions of the Labor Laws. From the case, it is clear that the strike was allowed to go and this will only mean that it was a legal strike. The demands raised in the scenario can best be addressed by chapter four of the Oman Labor Laws. Salaries, leaves and working hours are provided for in chapter of the Oman Labor Laws (OLL). Article 50 provides that the Council of Ministers will determine the minimum limit of salaries in accordance with the needs of economic circumstances. Relating this to the demand of the striking private school teachers, it is clear that teachers salaries are currently quite well paid and above the minimum wage and aligns to the economic situations as there is perceived low levels of inflation in Oman. Moreover, the government determines the prices of essential commodities while rents several cases have decreased as a result of oversupply. It is also clear that the wages and salaries were revised two years ago and hence justifying new salaries would be inappropriate for the employers. Based on the scenario, this demand may not see the light. Article 65 provides that employees are entitled to their gross salaries during the holidays of festivals together with occasions that determined by a decision from the Minister. It is, therefore, appropriate for the teachers salaries to be paid over twelve months of the year and not just the ten months that they work since this method has worked well in other countries. Article 67 (paragraph 1-6) provides that employees are entitled to special leave with gross salary. Chapter four part III provides the hours of work in Oman. Article 68 provide that employs might not be essential to work for over nine hours a day and for a maximum of 48 hours a week excluding the periods outlined for taking rest and food. Relating this section to demand for shortened teaching day. The fact is that teachers already have quite short teaching day since they only have approximately 5 contact hours per day which is within the hours provided under article 68. Moreover, teachers do not undertake Extra Curric ular Activities after school since children head home by 1 p.m. Provision of good buses is matter than will ensure safety as provided for under chapter six of OLL (industrial safety). Article 87, 88, 89 and 90 of the OLL details how both employer and employees need to ensure industrial safety. It is, therefore, illegal for the overcrowding buses and being potentially dangerous. The demand is legal and there is a need for good buses for students to make sure each student has a seat in the bus. The promotion of employees is provided for in Article 28 which leaves this at the discretion of the employer to put in a conspicuous place the regulations of work upon approval by the Ministry including the rules governing the promotion depending on the nature of the work alongside the specification of the salary groups. Therefore, issues with the promotion and raising salaries will be internally solved between employer and the employees. Need for Trade Union Chapter nine of the Oman Labor Laws provides for the formation of the representative committee. Article 108, 109 and 110 provide that employees of a given establishment can form among themselves, a representative committee for the purposes of safeguarding their interest as well as shielding their lawfully recognized rights and representing the employees in every issue relating to employees matters. The employees rights are guaranteed pursuant to Article 108 of the OLL to form trade union. The fundamental right of the workers to perform a trade union is to defend the workers interest and guard their rights as well as improve their materialists and social conditions. Trade union is also to represent employees on every issue pertaining the matters of employees. Article 112 of the Oman Labor Law goes further to spells out the penalties for an establishment that hinders the workforces from undertaking their activities and prohibits the establishment of the trade unions or the General Federation of employees. Such an employer shall be penalized by imprisonment for a period not beyond one month as well as a fine of not more than RO 500 or of either consequences. A trade union is, therefore, a viable option to solve the dispute between employees (private school teachers) and employer in this case. As provided under the Oman Labour Laws (Article eight of the 2012 MD) a duly registered labor union has a right to exercise various rights during its representation of its members. A trade union will, therefore, be best placed to lodge complaints before a competent department at the MOM emerging from the organizations non-adherence to the OLLs provision together with the implementation of decisions together with regulations of the establishment. The trade unions will also peruse the OLL together with its implementation decision and regulations thereby guaranteeing the rights as well as interests of the employees at the organization. The trade unions will also acquire all the essential resources from the organization for the performance of its activities alongside the suitable premises for undertaking the establishments meetings as well as storing its documents (Al-Sayegh 2002). Since most of the demands by private school teachers including need for bringing back females teachers to schools near to their homes, promotion of teachers every four years, raising teachers based on performance, raising salaries, curriculum change, providing nurseries for teachers children, and providing gym for students per school are not compelled by the OLL, the labor union can best bargain for these demands ethically and not legally since, the employer stand to win the legal battles. Moreover, the trade union boost the collective bargaining power leading to a collective labor agreement (CLA). Article five of the MD 294 of 2006 provides that once CLA has been concluded between the private school teachers and the employer, the employer has the duty to display the CLA conspicuously at the workplace. Legality of the Private Teachers Strike The f labor disputes settlement, collective haggling as well as peaceable strikes are overseen by the OLL and the Ministerial Decision. According to OLL and MD, the strike was, therefore, legally declared by the private school teachers to demand for their interest and welfare. It is legal since some of the demands are justified and hence they are protected by law to demand the welfare, for example, the need to ensure that good buses are put in place and that each child gets a seat in the bus is logical to ensure safety as outlined in Article 87, 88, 89 and 90 of the OLL. It is, also, clear that the teachers followed the right procedure for holding strike. For example, the employers were given a written notice at least three weeks before the strike with detailed list of fourteen demands, intention to hold strike as well as reasons for holding the strike and planned date for the strike. Also, the relevant government authorities and the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) were notified and given the written notice alongside the demands and reasons. The teachers, therefore, complied with the set procedures before commencing their strike and hence giving its legal nature (Al-Hamadi and Budhwar 2006). Dispute Settlement Procedure under OLL The employer has two options to settle industrial dispute under OLL in case of an illegal strike. An illegal strike will a attract dare consequences based on two options available for the employer (Singer 2006). The proprietor can file an emergency submission to the Competent Court looking for an order that the workers get back to work awaiting the result of the Court decisions on the underlying matter. The employer can also take action under the provision of Article forty of the Clause 8 that provides for the employees dismissal without prior notice in case of committal of a severe break of his obligation to accomplish his duties as provided in his employment agreement. In case of the legal strike, the employer and the employee or their representatives (trade union) will have to sit down and bargain a CLA. Conclusion Strike is common in Oman economy across all sectors including education, PDO and health just to mention a few. The OLL read together with the MD provides the procedures for holding legal strike in Oman. Nevertheless, it is illegal to hold strike for those employees who provide necessities (Al-Hamadi, Budhwar and Shipton 2007). Trade union is also legal in Oman and employers get penalized in case they prohibit employees from forming trade unions and exercising their rights. The employee-employer relationships in Oman is not good as can be witnessed by rampant strikes in Oman across the sectors. Article 24 of OLL outlines that the maximum probationary period for employees three months. It provides that either employer or employee can dismiss the agreement during the probationary time by providing other party at least seven days notice. Some of the probable practices that need to be followed to enhance the employment relation between private school teachers and their employer is to allow the teachers form a trade union which will represents them in all matters pertaining to their affairs. This ensure that negotiations go on simultaneously with teaching without disrupting the learning process. Also, the employers should include the teachers in policies and decision making so as to reduce change resistance. References Al-Hamadi, A.B. and Budhwar, P.S., 2006. Human resource management in Oman. Managing Human Resource in the Middle East, Routledge, Oxford, pp.40-58. Al-Hamadi, A.B., Budhwar, P.S. and Shipton, H., 2007. Management of human resources in Oman. The international journal of human resource management, 18(1), pp.100-113. Al-Mahrooqi, R., Abrar-Ul-Hassan, S. and Asante, C.C., 2012. Analyzing the use of motivational strategies by EFL teachers in Oman. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research, 8(1), p.36. Al-Sayegh, F., 2002. The UAE and Oman: Opportunities and challenges in the twenty-first century. Middle East Policy, 9(3), p.124. Curtis, M.-P. C. . M. L., 2013. Oman Law Blog. CURTIS, Volume 1, pp. 1-4. https://omanlawblog.curtis.com/2013/10/trade-unions.html Naithani, P. and Jha, A.N., 2009. Challenges Faced by Expatriate Workers in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries. Naithani, P. and Jha, AN (2010). Challenges faced by expatriate workers in the GCC countries. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(1), pp.98-104. Singer, G.H., 2006. Employing Alternative Dispute Resolution: Working at Finding Better Ways to Resolve Employer-Employee Strife. NDL Rev., 72, p.299. Sunil K. Vaidya, B. C., 2016. Petroleum Development Oman employees seek recognition of new union to serve employees' interests. Gulf News Oman, 1(Strike ), pp. 1-4. HYPERLINK "https://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/oman/pdo-employees-demand-dismissal-of-trade-union-seek-recognition-of-new-union-to-serve-employees-interests-1.818978" https://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/oman/pdo-employees-demand-dismissal-of-trade-union-seek-recognition-of-new-union-to-serve-employees-interests-1.818978

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

A latent infection Essays

A latent infection Essays A latent infection Essay A latent infection Essay A latent infection refers to an infective agent, in this instance a virus, staying in an inactive or hibernating province [ I ] . This can happen in both DNA and RNA viruses, including Herpes Simplex virus and HIV. The virus life rhythm includes two parts, the lytic and lysogenic rhythm. Latent infections come under the lysogenic rhythm. This latent phase is utile in hedging an immune response so the virus lasts for a longer clip within the host cell. The lytic rhythm is the chief rhythm where reproduction occurs and is shown below in diagram 1. The first phase is attachment where the virus attaches to the host cell via a receptor. The viral nucleic acid is either injected into the cell through incursion or the whole virus atom is taken up by endocytosis. If the virus was taken up in this manner it now needs to be uncoated so the viral nucleic acid is exposed in the cytol of the host cell. The following phase is cistron look and the control of cistron look determines the overall class of a virus infection ( acute, chronic, relentless or latent ) ( Principles of Molecular Virology, 4th edition, Alan J. Cann, 2005 ) . Depending on the type of nucleic acid, DNA or RNA, look and reproduction of the cistron can take topographic point in the cytol or the karyon of the host cell. Assembly so takes topographic point to acquire all the constituents necessary to do a new virion together and they are packaged into membranes and envelopes. This is known as the ripening procedure and is the point when the virus becomes infective. Replication occurs rapidly and so many mature virions are made, that they are released from the host cell through lysis of the cell wall. The virions can now reiterate this procedure on another host cell to distribute the infection. Diagram 1 the lytic and lysogenic rhythms: Viral DNA/RNA is incorporated into the host genome in the lysogenic rhythm besides shown in diagram 1. The host genome is now termed a prophage and the viral nucleic acid replicates as a portion of the host cell and can be passed onto girl cells. No new virions are made in this rhythm and there are no symptoms from the infection. The viral nucleic acid can stay in the lysogenic rhythm for a long clip but if the prophage is triggered by emphasis or UV visible radiation, the rhythm can return back to the lytic rhythm where new viral offspring is formed. Viral latency is portion of the lysogenic component of the virus life rhythm. Gene look is down regulated so, in this latent province, the virus is non being replicated ( Janeway s Immunobiology, 7th edition, Murphy et Al, 2008 ) . The viral nucleic acid is integrated into the host genome and replicates with the host genome but no new viral proteins are being made. This happens at a point after the initial infection with the virus. There is no disease nowadays in this phase but the virus has non been eradicated. The virus can be reactivated from a latent province to a lytic province due to a figure of factors. These include emphasis, sunlight or hormonal alterations. A reversion to the lytic phase of the life rhythm consequences in viral proteins being made and the infection returning, but perchance in a different look compared to the initial infection. The latent province is maintained by the written text of certain cistrons, either maintaining the virus in the latent province or returning it back to the lytic. The forms of the latent phase can be studied utilizing bacteriophage lambda as it does non do disease. Diagram 2 below shows in graph signifier how the virus can travel in and out of a latent province over clip. Diagram 2 latency graph demoing viral burden vs. clip The virus in the latent phase does non bring forth any proteins, which makes it undetectable to the immune system as there are no sensing markers. The virus can besides conceal in cells that do non split, for illustration in some cells of the immune system. The virus does non acquire broken down or engulfed by macrophages as it has become portion of the host cell. The latent phase is a good manner of lasting in a host cell in order to reinfect the host subsequently on. It can so besides spread to other host cells, advancing drawn-out endurance and perennial infection. In a productive infection, the lytic rhythm is activated and viral proteins are made. This is different to the latent phase. The virus would merely last for a certain period of clip in a productive infection until it was eliminated from the host. Herpesviruses do latent infections in many different carnal species ( Introduction to Modern Virology, 6th edition, Dimmock et Al, 2007 ) . Herpesviruses can do different sorts of diseases, for illustration, poulet syphilis, the Herpes Simplex Virus and the Epstein-Barr virus. The Herpes Simplex Virus or HSV has many types, which include Type 1, associated with cold sores around the oral cavity and Type 2 with venereal herpes. Once infected with the HSV virus, it infects the mucose membranes around the oral cavity. The viral DNA of HSV1 so integrates into the host genome in nervus cells called nervous ganglion [ two ] . Viral look is restricted during the latent phase, so no viral offspring is formed. The virus can be in the latent phase and remain in the organic structure for the remainder of its life, perchance repeating at different phases. If the virus is reactivated from the latent phase, it goes into the lytic phase and replicates to organize new viral offspring, which reinfects the mucose membranes of the oral cavity. The new infection can besides look as a signifier of herpes zosters after reactivation. The latent phase of HSV1 has no effects on the host and no symptoms are produced from it unless reactivated into the lytic rhythm. Factors that affect the reactivation of HSV1 include other unwellnesss, for illustration a cold, sing nerve-racking state of affairss either emotionally or physically an d hurts. Within the nervous cells, in the latent phase, RNA sequences are expressed called Latency-associated Transcripts ( LATs ) . There are tonss of LATs and they modify procedures within the host cell so it is non removed by the immune system. This is the merely active portion of the virus during the latent phase and they help keep latency within the cell. LATs are besides required for reactivation. The Epstein-Barr virus or HHV-4 virus is besides portion of the herpes virus household. Peoples infected with the Epstein-Barr virus are frequently symptomless for most of their lives. If the infection arises in a kid, there is an acute infection. However, if the infection arises in an grownup, it can do glandular febrility. Symptoms include a sore pharynx, conceited secretory organs and a febrility [ three ] . The infection starts in the salivary secretory organ and can hence be dispersed direct contact with the septic spit, for illustration, through caressing. It lasts for around 2-3 hebdomads but after that clip, there are no longer symptoms and the virus remains latent in resting, memory B lymphocytes [ four ] . When the B cells are infected with EBV, they proliferate and T cells are recruited to acquire rid of septic B cells. Reactivation of the EBV virus frequently causes a subclinical infection but can besides do malignant neoplastic diseases, like Burkitt s lymphoma, largely found in Africa or B cell lymphoma. When the virus is in a latent province the cistrons are expressed in the round signifier of an episome, instead than a additive signifier in the lytic province. Upto nine viral proteins are expressed in the latent province which is a little sum compared to the viral proteins produced in the lytic province. These specific proteins help to keep the latent province. These include six Epstein-Barr atomic antigens ( EBNAs ) and three latent membrane proteins ( LMPs ) [ 5 ] . EBNA-1 is the lone one of these proteins which is necessary for DNA reproduction and the others are used in cell procedures like cell signalling. EBNA-1 is besides the lone antigen nowadays in Burkitt s lymphoma and T cells ca nt adhere with it, so ca nt acquire rid of the septic cell. Human Immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) is a RNA retrovirus, which causes AIDS. AIDS is a status where the immune system has been degraded so much that it can no longer contend against infection. HIV contains 2 RNA strands and is covered by a protein coat. When HIV infects a cell, rearward RNA polymerase is used to change over its RNA into DNA so that reproduction can happen within the host. After infection, the virus either replicates quickly to infect other cells or goes into the latent province in CD4+ T lymphocytes. HIV is known as a slow virus which means it takes a long clip to bring forth symptoms, frequently taking to a late diagnosing of the disease. An infection with HIV causes flu like symptoms at first, before going symptomless and traveling into a clinically latent stage. In this stage there is still reproduction of the HIV virus in some cells but some of the virus has gone into a latent province, which means some of the virus is active and some is inactive. The clinical la tency phase varies in length from hebdomads to old ages and the virus can still be passed on to other people as the retroflexing virus is besides present. CD8 T cells are responsible for the diminution of the virus but they can non extinguish the virus. Peoples with the HIV virus carry the disease for the remainder of their lives. Anti-retroviral drugs and chemotherapy can non acquire rid of the virus from the latent phase, so even if the activated virus was eliminated, the virus can still re-emerge. The latent virus can be reactivated but the specific grounds for this happening are non known. Reactivation of the virus from the latent phase, consequences in more serious symptoms developing and leads to the oncoming of AIDS. To reason, latent infections are another manner that certain viruses can hedge the immune responses of the host. The virus can either conceal in cells in certain tissues like the Herpes Simplex Virus or conceal in B cells of the immune system like the Epstein-Barr virus. HIV is a RNA virus that prolongs the life of the virus by concealing in CD4+ cells. All these viruses can be reactivated to do a ulterior infection. Often the reverting infection is acute but sometimes more serious infections arise for illustration malignant neoplastic diseases like Burkitt s lymphoma upon reactivation of the EBV virus. The latency phase is a clever technique of the virus to remain in the host for a longer period of clip. hypertext transfer protocol: //dictionary.reference.com/browse/latent Latent Viruss and Diseases from World of Microbiology and Immunology. Â ©2005-2006 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/ebv.htm Introduction to Modern Virology, 6th edition, Dimmock et Al, 2007 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.science.org.au/nova/026/026key.htm

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Raisin in the sun essays

Raisin in the sun essays A Raisin in the Sun, written by Lorraine Hansberry ,is by far one of the best books have read yet. The setting is in the mid-1900's in the Southside of Chicago. The main focus of this book occurs around a poor black family in a poor black community, the Younger's. Hansberry does a great job of using dialect to make the scenes quite realistic and uses quite a bit of symbolism, irony, motifs, and situations that involve making decisions where you become stuck between a rock and a hard place. The book starts off with Walter Younger's obsession with his mother's insurance check so he can become a true entrepeneur and invest in his own liquor store. Since religion played a vital role in Mama's reaction to this sinful act it really damaged Walter's hopes and dreams. Later in the book Mama finally decides to give Walter the money and leaves him with the responsibility of taking care of the family, this is where the rising action begins. Then the climax hits when Walter finds out that the mo ney he gave to his partner is gone. This leaves Walter and the rest of the family in a sudden feeling of disillusionment. Then as things cool down Walter and the rest of the family decide to go ahead and move into the all white neighborhood. The rest of the story is jam packed with racial, religious, economic, and even feministical motifs that aid in the release of all the true tensions in the novel, between characters, which Hansberry purposely relates to the reality of the way society really is. Her purpose for writing this book was to show the way society worked and to make it apparent how hard life was for a poor black family. Overall I really enjoyed this book. It had alot of realistic elements , enough to make the reader stay interested and more. The plot is dramatic and ends ironically. I gave this book 4 stars because it had all the elements of a good book it just did not have the ending I was expecting. I recommend this book t ...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

HBOs Organizational Strategy and Culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

HBOs Organizational Strategy and Culture - Essay Example HBO has adapted the organizational strategy of producing only those contents which other channels avoided to land their feet. In this sense, we can easily assume that HBO is largely focusing on practicing Differentiation as a strategy for its products which are offered to the vast majority of its audience. Thus its organizational strategy is based on differentiation. This is also evident from the fact that HBO over the period of time has been spending heavily in creating its brand identity which seems to be an excellent strategy especially in an industry environment which has very different and unique dynamics and a lot of competition to face. Further, an economic model which HBO is following is sort of unique in the sense that it provides it very readily available revenue as the viewers are charged only $12 over their basic cable bills allowing the company to have enough access to the funds to originate programs of unique and original quality. However, the contents produced are some what specific to one cultural stratum of the society and hardly serve the viewers which live in America but have different cultural values such as Hispanic, Spanish etc communities in the US. Â  The cultural aspect of the organization suggests that it is organizational which is largely driven by the creative ideas and an environment which allow unleashing creativity and innovation which is also evident from the contents produced on the channel. This approach towards developing an organizational culture of creativity, innovation and open communication can especially serve the interest of the channel in the long term because it would provide the necessary impetus to the organization.