Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Communications Essay Example for Free

Interchanges Essay 1. What is a ramifications, when all is said in done, and what are explicit ramifications of the nearness of the U.S. banner, Constitution, and Bill Of Rights in all the study halls at the University of Arizona? a. A general meaning of a ramifications is a supposition that can be deduced from a given situation that isn't clearly determined. The US banner, Constitution, and Bill of Rights are exceedingly significant images of opportunity in the United States. The Bill of Rights contains the initial ten changes to the Constitution that protect the freedoms and opportunities pervasive in the United States. The Constitution presents the structure of the administration we made in the wake of opposing the British government. The US banner contains a portrayal of the first 13 provinces that opposed the British government as the stripes and the current 50 states as the stars, this portrayal holds a solid image of Americanism. A particular ramifications of having the U.S. banner, Constitution and Bill of Rights in all University of Arizona study halls is to help understudies to remember the opportunities that are accessible to them in the United States. These images of individual flexibility elevate one’s capacity to be a frank individual, contradict some common norms in all that they do, and keep up an individual soul. 2. Issues in business, government, and connections are often accused on an absence of correspondence or an inability to impart appropriately. Utilize the Tubbs correspondence model on page 9 of your Human Communication course book to analyze a correspondence issue and propose a suggestion for fixing the issue. a. Tubbs’ correspondence model includes two communicators and contains three fundamental parts of correspondence: the messages, impedance, and the channel. Correspondence issues can exist over each of the three segments of Tubbs’ correspondence model. Messages can be purposeful and accidental, when we send an unexpected message we give a message that we didn’t plan to and will for the most part not get some answers concerning the mistake until we get criticism from the collector. Correspondence issues in channels can happen when communicating something specific through an inappropriate channel, each channel fills an essential need and sending an inappropriate message through a channel can prompt a breakdown in correspondence. Impedance is the thing that makes a sent message become misjudged or missed totally, generally because of a twisting in the message or the beneficiary getting occupied. A genuinely regular issue that has gotten progressively conspicuous in correspondence since the ascent in prevalence of electronic informing is the failure to relate mockery, incongruity, or different feelings successfully. Normally when somebody says something wry it very well may be taken as a genuine articulation and the collector can see the sender as uninformed or silly. To fix this the individual either needs to relate the message through an all the more sincerely productive station, for example, a call, or incorporate a signifier that permits the individual to understand the content ought to be taken as mockery, for example, including the tag/mockery a short time later. 3. What topic is at the core of the field of correspondence? To respond to this inquiry, envision that a companion or relative asked you what ‘communication’ as a scholarly subject was about. How might you react to that individual with the goal that they had an unmistakable comprehension? a. Correspondence has changed a lot in the course of the most recent 2400 years however has consistently kept up an essential community to its examination while including an ever increasing number of components. In old Greece, Socrates and Plato utilized correspondence (at that point called Rhetoric) as a way to find reality and coax it out of their understudies. Aristotle took Plato’s see and extended onto it that fact isn't generally outright and people should along these lines find out the â€Å"probable† truth. These early understandings despite everything hold pertinent today and make a system for the contemporary investigation of human correspondence. At the core of correspondence is the requirement for comprehension, the requirement for individuals to have the option to help other people comprehend what they’re saying and comprehend what others are stating. With this requirement for understanding Plato expressed that talk would be utilized to advance misrepresentation over truth while Aristotle saw that either deception or truth could be advanced and it is the obligation of the resident to utilize talk to protect reality. Correspondence covers the focal subject of giving data to others through various diverts in a proficient and compelling way. As correspondence advances it will keep on holding its focal topic while including an ever increasing number of pertinent zones of understanding. 4. How was the old Greek city-territory of Athens associated with the historical backdrop of correspondence? What associations exist between correspondence in old Athens and correspondence on the planet today? a. Athens was home to the three researchers who made the two essential perspectives to what we at present know as correspondence. Socrates, Aristotle and Plato gave a solid establishment to the investigation of correspondence while originating from two distinct perspectives on talk. Socrates and Plato were credited to making the perspective on â€Å"Divine Truth† which looked to utilize thinking and discourse to â€Å"draw out† information and comprehension. Where as, Aristotle saw that reality is all around in nature and must be taken in through the faculties. A lot of what Socrates, Aristotle and Plato put into correspondence (talk) is as yet legitimate today; Aristotle expressed correspondence is â€Å"purposive† and can be assessed on whether they achieve their motivation. Socrates showed a solid connection between correspondence that would bring about the disclosure and valuation for truth and magnificence; this gave a point of reference to the estimation of morals in correspondence. Each view places an incentive into an alternate method of review reality that encompasses us consistently; one sees that there is truth in all things and it’s up to the person to find that fact while different perspectives that reality is subject to the individual and can change contingent upon a people see. These two perspectives from old Athens will keep on driving the investigation of correspondence and help shape the kept comprehension of the field.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Read the requirement i send you carefully, Essay

Peruse the necessity I send you cautiously, - Essay Example Be that as it may, this has since changed as today associations perceives and acknowledges the pretended by representatives in guaranteeing execution and profitability of the organization. Also, the development of field or authoritative conduct made a road through which organizations can utilize different techniques to advance execution of representatives. One of these systems is successful correspondence in the working environment. This advances collaboration, makes trust and dependability permitting representatives have opportunity in the working environment. Furthermore, it advances representative inspiration and occupation fulfillment prompting great execution. Association works that use correspondence incorporate initiative and the board. With regards to administration there are distinctive initiative styles and associations need to concentrate on those that advance open correspondence. Genuine instances of utilization of initiative to advance compelling correspondence are found on account of Starbucks and Google.Inc, which are talked about in this paper. Acquaintance Organization conduct alludes with the idea of dealing with the conduct of people in the work environment, for example, association of the human asset, organization’s reaction to representatives and employees’ government assistance issues. These techniques help the associations in improving execution at the work environment and accomplishing upper hand over different associations in the business (McShane and Glinow 2010). Different parts of authoritative conduct incorporate understanding a few practices that applies to the association and rousing them to accomplish the best of hierarchical execution (Luthans 2011). Besides, authoritative conduct includes an examination of the effects of gatherings, people, and hierarchical structures on the conduct of on-screen characters of hierarchical conduct. Consequently, authoritative conduct is a basic part of the association particularly in this 21st century where much accentuation is put on individuals and their commitment to the organization. As per Luthans (2011), individuals are the way to achievement of each association as the employees’ commitment to the association is vital. In this way, associations endeavor to benefit from this perspective for profitability. A genuine case of authoritative conduct is correspondence. Correspondence alludes to the procedure of transmitting and understanding data between at least two people. It includes sharing of sentiments, considerations, articulations in addition to other things transmitted through verbal and non-verbal correspondence modes. Correspondence is profoundly fundamental in an association frequently alluded to as the existence wire of the business. Nelson and Quick (2012) characterizes correspondence as, ‘the bringing out of a mutual basic significance in another person’ (p.278). The summoning assumes an essential job in the association since it empowers development of successful relational relationship in the working environment. These then means effective activity execution and inevitably, fulfillment of the organization’s objectives. Be that as it may, the idea doesn't top at correspondence, however requires powerful to correspondence to make hierarchical progress. As per Nelson and Quick, four components of correspondence must be satisfied to accomplish and improve compelling correspondence, and these are the beneficiary, the communicator, the message, and perceptual screens. Obviously, correspondence is profoundly gainful in the working environment; subsequently, this paper investigates the utilization of correspondence on different parts of the

Wednesday, August 19, 2020

More IAP updates

More IAP updates The Maslab 2007 competition (the culmination of the class for which Ive been TAing this IAP) is tomorrow evening, and I am excited. The teams have been working very hard, and dealt well with setbacks. There was an interesting incident yesterday evening (I wasnt there) when one team accidentally shorted their battery and their robot caught on fire! But now they have a new battery, and their robot is fine, so they should be good to go tomorrow. I hear from a friend who knows that team very well that they proudly sent out some photos of their robot without giving any context for the photos, and that she asked them, Er, whats with the smoke? or something to that effect. Some students in the lab have fallen asleep at their laptops or on chairs. Im guessing those were the ones who pulled all-nighters or close to it. I remember what that sort of thing was like last year! It has been very cold recently, and there has been some snow, leading to a lot of frosh from warm climates making exclamations like OMG the snow is COLD! and amusing everyone else. I remember my first winter at MIT, which was pretty cold. It was December, and I was going out with a friend and her roommate to celebrate her birthday. It was cold and windy, but she, being from Chicago, thought nothing of it. We walked all over Boston because she couldnt decide where she wanted to eat. I had only limited experience with that sort of cold and almost none with that much snowand the roommate was from India and having her first snow experience! Finally, we explained that at this point we were willing to eat just about anywhere as long as it had a heater and an intact roof. We did gun defense in Jiu Jitsu last night (in the self-defense PE class). The idea is not to play hero and to attack a mugger with a gun who would otherwise have just run off, but to be able to defend yourself in a situation where it looks like the person might actually shoot you. We used rubber guns, and worked in pairs, with one person yelling BANG! The advanced class finally shut the door between the two rooms because they were sick of our noise. :) I played in the Assassins Guild tenday game. My character even survived game, which was no small feat in this particular game, as the same could not be said of 28 (out of 52 total) other characters. The publicly accessible game info lives here, and you can even get an idea of what was going on and what the plots were if you read the scenario and wrapup documents. Theres even a photo gallery from the first few days of game (I know I dont give you guys a lot of photos in my entries these days, so I figured you might enjoy knowing where some photos were). Im pretty sure that one of the award-winning players from the game is someone who used to occasionally comment on this blog a long time ago. I have other friends spending their IAP learning glassblowing, metalworking, archery, new programming languages, and so on. If you come to MIT, what do you want to do during IAP? This years offerings are viewable here.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Pharaohs Of The 18th Dynasty - 928 Words

Since the first Ancient Egyptian, Pharaoh Menes, placed himself on the throne, the pharaohs were considered to be both divine deities as well as mortal rulers. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines prophet as â€Å"a member of some religion who delivers messages that are believed to have come from God† Did that make Pharaoh Amenhotep IV aka Akhenaten a prophet? Defying centuries of traditional worship of the Egyptians, the mid-14th century BCE Pharaoh Akhenaten decreed during his reign that his subjects were to worship only one god; the sun-disk Aten. Was this a direct message from the gods or were there other political reasons at play. The pharaohs of the 18th dynasty 1550-1307 BCE had expanded Egypt’s wealth; conquering Palestine, Syria, plus securing the gold mines of Nubia, which made her the wealthiest country in the world. With 2,000 years of experience behind her, Egyptian forces were able to push back the Hittites, Libyans, and other tribes who stood in the w ay of their development. Amongst the progression was Amun, a major Egyptian deity, who after the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos, became heightened after his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Re. In gratitude for their successes, the pharaohs offered treasures to the god Amun-Ra, increasing the wealth and influence of the priesthood. The deity acquired national importance that alarmed Amenhotep III and his son Amenhotep IV due to the escalating powers of the priests of Amun. The Karnak Amun-RaShow MoreRelatedBiography of Queen Nafertiti975 Words   |  4 PagesQueen Nefertiti 1. My historical figure’s name is Queen Nefertiti, which means the beautiful one has come† 2. Queen Nefertiti ruled alongside her husband, Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) of the 18th dynasty, New kingdom (r. 1372-1355 BCE) of Ancient Egypt. 3. Her dates of birth and death are thought to have been somewhere around (ca. 1370 BC – ca. 1330 BC) 4. Nefertiti and her husband associated themselves with the sun god â€Å"Aten.† Nefertiti and her husband, Akhenaten were best known for the Amarna HeresyRead MoreKing Tutankhamun1035 Words   |  5 Pagescalled the New Kingdom because it was when the pharaohs united upper and lower Egypt into one kingdom with the capital being Memphis near current day Cairo. The reason I chose to write a research paper on King Tut is because he is one of the most well known pharaohs of ancient Egypt. Tutankhamun is most well known only by the discovery of his intact tomb in 1922 by Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon. King Tut was born in 1343 B.C. into the 18th Dynasty. Early in his life Tutankaten meaning the LivingRead MoreAncient Egyp Gods and Godesses: From A to Z1331 Words   |  6 Pagesjourney to the afterlife. He was portrayed man with a jackal’s head, or in jackal form holding a flail in the crook of his arm and wearing a ribbon. In the Old Kingdom he was the most important God, where he was associated with the burial of the pharaoh. He was very important because the Egyptians worshiped two things: 1. the gods and 2. The dead. The ancient Egyptians also believed in the afterlife. So another reason why Anubis was so important was because, on your travel to the afterlife he wasRead MoreEssay on Development of Ancient Egypt823 Words   |  4 Pagesand decided what goods and services they were to produce. All the decisions were made by the government. Egypt belonged to a living god (Pharaoh). The Pharaoh had a bureaucracy, and 2 viziers, one for each half of Egypt. Civil servan ts gave each farmer a certain amount of grain from the state granary. The purpose of economy was to provide luxury for the Pharaoh. The most important aspect of the Egyptian economy was agriculture, which was the backbone of Egyptian prosperity. Egyptian civilizationRead MoreEssay about Akhenaten: Heretic Man or Visionary Pharaoh? 1235 Words   |  5 Pages Pharaohs were governors of the Ancient Egyptian realm who broadcasted themselves as sons of gods who upheld Ma’at – the Egyptian order of life. Most pharaohs ruled in a typical and expected way carrying the beliefs of their ancestors- though not all ruled this way. Akhenaten of the 18th Dynasty New Kingdom was not an â€Å"archetypal† pharaoh as seen through his goal to change Egyptian religion from polytheism to monotheism and through his building project in Amarna. Though he used traditional meansRead MoreThe Development of Religious Archetecture in New Kingdom Essay649 Words   |  3 PagesThe expansion of the political and economical power during the New kingdom, led to the devotion of resources to the religious architecture; numerous new temples were constructed while the pre-existing temples were renovated. Individual Pharaohs endeavored to out do their ancestors, not only in the construction of their own mortuary temples, but also in the establishment of worship temples of their deities. Kings of this period abandoned the pyramid complexity of the earlier ages and constructed theirRead MoreThe Discovery Of Being Mummified Essay1047 Words   |  5 Pages Do you know the process of being mummified? Well I will tell you all about the process of being mummified. When pharaohs or very rich people die in Egypt they take all of their organs out except for their heart. They were then wrapped in linen cloth and put in a sarcophagus. (A sarcophagus was a coffin.) Before they are placed in the linen cloth they are given an amulet to keep evil away. They are said to have an afterlife. In their afterlife they are said to live eternally. The first type ofRead MoreAnalysis Of The Sahara Savannas ( The Nucleus Of Civilization )755 Words   |  4 Pagesmartial style â€Å"Kuta,† was the name of the style practiced by the Pharaohs; Priest and their bodyguards. Another so-called style was Sebeka or the â€Å"Cha† a study of decapitations (In similar fashion like the Bushido’ coded Samurai). Minus ancient Egypt’s mythology of great warrior gods and goddesses, Egypt or Kemet dynasties were led by powerful kings and queens of outstanding warrior ship: Menes-Aha (Narmer), first king of the first dynasty 3100 BC. Egyptologist recognizes him as the last Scorpion KingRead MoreAkhenaten essay721 Words   |  3 Pagesa Ruler of Egypt during the 18th Dynasty. He rose to the throne as Amenhotep IV, following his father Amenhotep III. Akhenatens short-term sovereignty, only about 16 years, emerged during the time when â€Å"Egyptian history and many scholars continue that Akhenaten was responsible for this decline.† Akhenaten, probably in a change to diminish the administrative influence of the Priests, introduced the worship of one God, the Aten, or Sun disk. This meant that the Pharaoh, not the clergy, was the personalRead MorePleas of a Desperate Queen1104 Words   |  5 Pagesits absolute peak during the New Kingdom and she most likely felt like the weight o f the kingdom was falling upon her shoulders. Egypt had over the last centuries such a strong history of power and stability and after the death of Tutankhamen the 18th dynasty Egyptian empire began to collapse. Undoubtedly, I can very much sympathize with the queen and her feelings at the time she wrote her letters to the king. She lost her husband and essentially stable control of her empire in a very short amount

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The National Standards Of The World - 834 Words

Everyday Americans all over the nation proudly wave a red, white and blue flag. A flag with thirteen horizontal stripes, equal in width, and fifty white five-pointed stars in a blue rectangle in the upper-left corner. A flag that symbolizes the unity and strength of the country. As the flag is flown all over the nation it proudly holds the name of the American Flag. As many people see the flag some may begin to wonder why the American Flag is red, white, and blue and what the meaning of the flag is. The United States Flag is the third oldest of the National Standards of the world (USA Citylink). It was first adopted on June 14, 1777 by the Marine Committee of the Second Continental Congress. They adopted a resolution establishing an official flag for the new nation. The resolution stated, â€Å"Resolved, that the flag of the United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field representing a new constellation.† (Gr eenstein) The flag was first flown on August 3, 1777 the site of the present city of Rome, New York. It has emerged triumphantly from eight great National Conflicts. It flew at Saratog, Yorktown, Palo Alto, Gettysburge, Minala bay, Chateau-Thierry, and Iwo Jima. The American Flag bears witness to the development of our national boundaries, natural resources, and the structure of our civilization. (USA Citylink) Since 1777 the flag has undergone several revisions to reach its current design. Between 1777Show MoreRelatedNational Standards And Public Education1453 Words   |  6 Pagesabout the standards and curriculum of public education. â€Å"And for as long as American have fought the culture wars, they have debated the role of education, the institution most essential to ensuring the reproduction of national identity.† (Hartman, 2013) This essay will evaluate the sides for and against the creation of national standards in public education. The high stakes world of public e ducation has created great concern along with trepidation about the future of the educational standards, as aRead MoreEssay about High Stakes Testing1323 Words   |  6 PagesHigh Stakes Testing In 1997, President Bill Clinton stated that the United States needed, â€Å" a national crusade for education standards - not federal government standards, but national standards, representing what all our students must know to succeed in the knowledge economy of the twenty-first century†( The way to succeed in this journey is through standardized testing that results in consequences for teachers and students. ThroughoutRead MoreAdvantages and barriers of harmonizing International Financial Reporting Standards throughout the world1065 Words   |  5 Pagestrade and capital flows that has occurred over the previous two decades has increased the desire to harmonise accounting standards across the globe. The appeal of international accounting harmonization has been extensively discussed. Numerous academics Ali, J M (2005), Adhikari and Tondkar (1992), Saudagaran (1997) argue that adopting International Financial Reporing Standards (IFRS) would bring great benefits to society, such as comparability of statements between countries, progression and developmentRead MoreCable Codes Essay690 Words   |  3 PagesRobin Prather NT1310 Week 2 Exercise April 10, 2013 Cabling Design, Standards, Codes and Definitions 1. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Five engineering societies and three U.S. government agencies founded the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ANSI’s mission is to encourage voluntary compliance with standards and methods. 2. Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) The EIA is organized along speciï ¬ c product and market lines that allow each EIA sector to be responsiveRead More The Greenhouse Gas Protocol1577 Words   |  7 Pagesestablishment of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol), which has developed protocols, standards and guidelines for the objective. What is the GHG Protocol? The GHG Protocol is the most widely used and international accepted accounting tool or methodology to quantify, and manage GHG emissions. It serves as the foundation for nearly every GHG standard and program in the world - from the International Standards Organization (ISO) to The Climate Registry - as well as hundreds of GHG inventories preparedRead MoreThe World Trade Organization ( Wto ) Essay1508 Words   |  7 Pagesgrowth within international trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) and standard of living (measured by Human development Index). Globalisation in relation to Indonesia has greatly expanded the country’s international relationships, improved standard of living for the nation’s population and improved economic growth through assistance from strategies implemented to aid development. These strategies include Indonesia joining the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and introducing stimulating macroeconomic policiesRead MoreAmerican Religion And The American O f American Culture And Spirit By Harold Koh And Ted Bromund1658 Words   |  7 Pagesthey know how the world really works, and only they know how it should be worked. So the American Exceptionlism is the result of American culture and spirit. Harold Koh and Ted Bromund are keeping different opinions based on the influence of American Exceptionlism. It is a debate between â€Å"pure† virtues and â€Å"both good and bad†. In my opinion, American Exceptionalism has both good and bad sides and we should try to reduce the double standards by following better angles of national nature. In the article-America’sRead MoreGdp, Is It a Useful Measure of Living Standards?1356 Words   |  6 PagesWhy is GDP per capita useful as a measure of living standards? What are the limitations of GDP per capita as a comparable measure of living standards? Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the monetary value of final goods and services produced in a given year by factors of production within a country. GDP reports are released on the last day of each quarter, reflecting the previous quarter. Therefore, it is measured on a quarterly basis and measures the level of economic growth in different countriesRead MoreGdp, Is It a Useful Measure of Living Standards?1347 Words   |  6 PagesWhy is GDP per capita useful as a measure of living standards? What are the limitations of GDP per capita as a comparable measure of living standards? Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the monetary value of final goods and services produced in a given year by factors of production within a country. GDP reports are released on the last day of each quarter, reflecting the previous quarter. Therefore, it is measured on a quarterly basis and measures the level of economic growth in different countriesRead MoreEuropea Vs Standard-Setting Model933 Words   |  4 Pagescontinents for setting the standards for wireless systems. The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is responsible for setting standards for all telecommunication related medium and materials. The main role of TIA’s is to create a forum for participants as well as to exchange information and also work out for the detailed specifications. It is suppose to publish as a voluntary standard when a particular proposal gains solid industry support which becomes standard-setting environment favoring

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

After the Battle Free Essays

A jumble of limbs and skin, not that I knew it, I was just another fragment of the landscape, a surface of khaki and blood, surrounded the shore, clouded a dusky pink where a ship sat deserted and alone. Sand gatherings were sleek as they followed the wind and flustering specs as sharp as glass, were deciding where to settle, inspecting every body, join it for a while, but would soon be gone. Now my clothes are crusted with blood, a gunshot so neat can rip through your body; like a mole it burrow’s within the depths of flesh, blood and bone, stopping at nothing to pass to the other side. We will write a custom essay sample on After the Battle or any similar topic only for you Order Now A gunshot so destructive, can take no longer than a fraction of a millisecond, to puncture your heart, to suck the air from your lungs and leave the blood to empty your veins hour after hour. Hour after hour†¦its time to bleed. I could no longer feel the bitter sting of the burning sand on my open wounds, nor the suffocating inner walls of the tunnels, carved by a bullet, still seeping. All I could feel was a general ache, the fact that I’m still alive, seems inadequate. I feel like a tap that has been left on, drip, drip, waiting for my life, to be effortlessly, cut off. I could well be melting and the taste of the fluids dripping from my face is recognisable, I am drowning in my own blood, sweat and tears. Hesitating to open my eyes, I think of a rusty gate as the weight is so difficult to lift, secured with glue-like mucus, sharp and jagged in some places, my eyelids seem to be made of metal, brittle and disabled by age and rust. How long had I been here? Had I grown old in this battle? I feel altogether robotic, like a machine that had been broken, no longer a human but just another tool for those who are better than I am, either them or the person left in me gave me the strength to open my eyes, as that gateway is like lifting numerous tonnes of weight. But to my dismay all I saw were gashes of light that came to me like a stampede, the sand was on me and everywhere, each grain an annoying little bee, my eyes become a hive of little sand and blinding white, just being in existence. I sharply shut them again, I’m back in my own little world, but is that place really where I’m needed? Again, the shutter doors must open, the jagged edge is now broken, it seems a great weight off my mind when the entrance is clear, the gate is now satisfactory and lifts quite swiftly, I am free, freed into what? I’m stumped between a prison and a mass A and E. Everything around me is death, leads to death or inspires it. Ghoulish faces looked at me from all around, but with no expression. Their features lie beneath the murky layer of dust and dirt. One who was settled very close to me, has deep red stains all around his mouth and nose, it is visible to see the dried out tracks where blood had quickly escaped through his lips and nostrils, and even faint fingerprints where he must have rapidly checked the bleeding. He had been shot only once, in his neck, one move for one life and that touching of his face was likely to be the last move he ever made. His right hand lay on the sand, next to his neck, his fingertips too, tinted with his own blood. I suddenly realise that something was holding me up, I couldn’t understand why I hadn’t known this before, as it was far too close to my skin considering my vest, shirt and thick jacket, soon my awareness makes it somewhat painful. The sharp jagged material had formed a spear, and it took a moment to think about getting myself out of this awkward position. The gunshots in my leg and side were holding me back, but I had to use anything else I had in the world to push me away from this pain. †¦I can see my wife, that blinding white is now lighting up her big brown eyes, those same eyes that believed so much in me all that time ago, stand right before me as if they never left†¦ If this was all I had, it had to be enough to get me through this day; I must survive, if only for that. Stand up. I hesitantly move my boot soles onto to the flattest sand I can find, even now my leg is vibrating with pain, but I must go on. Stand up! Come on man! You are weak! You’re no use to any of us down there! I won’t ask you again boy! My knees unbend themselves and some miracle had led me to my feet, from where I immediately fall into the almost alight sand bed, it agitatedly buzzed around me, stinging and biting on any flesh available. But it was the distinct scream that will always haunt my mind, I didn’t before this imagine I would ever fear my own voice, as it shattered the silence I lay hoping and praying it would not wake anybody up, I preferred to be alone. Or close to it, as my gaze now met that of another pair of eyes drained of all emotion. I looked at him, I wanted him to look unhappy, I wanted to feel sympathy, but it looked at me with pride, it had died in honour, it had done his duty, so nothing mattered. I reached out and gently pulled his eyelids over those misty eyes, and already began to miss him. I looked over him towards the admirable surroundings, where I always wanted to come, huge cliffs towered above me, crowned with beautiful plants, the vague outlines of which I saw swaying, almost dancing beneath the beautiful sunlight. The heat had done nothing but added to my pain, but the sky now glowed, its rich blue tones comforted me, I had done well, this I knew as I released my thoughts into the cloudless sky, where I stayed, ’til the end. How to cite After the Battle, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Private School Teachers Strike in Oman

Question: Discuss about the Private School Teachers Strike in Oman. Answer: Introduction: Oman face various industrial disputes yearly as the result of employee strikes across the sectors. In Oman, teachers, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) employees, health workers and even other company worker have always down their tools striking for poor working conditions, salaries and wage increment, leave, promotion and even hours of work reduction (Sunil and Vaidya 2016). This has created increased pressure on the Oman industrial disputes handling. Fruitful dispute resolution required essential venture of cash, energy alongside time in the country due to the rampancy of industrial disputes (Al-Mahrooqi, Abrar-Ul-Hassan and Asante 2012). Navigating of these clashes in Oman has been significantly condensed especially where a business implements a detailed or widespread internal programme for effective management of any emerging disputes. The Oman disputes generally need a significant investment of time for preparing documentation. This is because the Court give preferences to well-organized documentary evidence. In Oman, pursuing a court action without sufficient preparation might not only assist the parties to a dispute to reach a satisfactory resolution. On the basis on several years of advising as well as representing firms from numerous industry sectors, Curtis has set out key suggestions for successful dispute management (Naithani and Jha 2009). Trade Union A trade union is an organization that has members who are normally employees or workers and it serves to oversee the members interest at work by undertaking activities such as negotiating agreements with the respective employers on working condition, pay and welfare. The MD 570(2012) has propagated the creation, the operation as well as the registering trade consortia, labor unions as well as Oman General Federation trade unions. Based on this framework, a labor union in Oman is formed by private sector associations that has an employee strength of twenty-five and above. The trade union acquires a status of an independent legal identity upon registration. Apart from having a minimum of twenty-five employees, a labor union becomes a legible for registering after drafting a decree alongside all the necessary documents as outlined in Article 5 of the 2012 MD. The OLL propagated by Royal Decree No. 35 of 2013 (OLL) as revised allows employees to form amongst themselves labor unions or consortia for the objectives of defending their rights, shielding their welfares (interest), representing them in all issues linked to their wellbeing and improving their financial as well as social status (Curtis, M.-P. and . M. L. 2013). Article eight of the 2012 MD holds that a duly registered labor union has the right to exercise certain rights including representing its memberships and defending their interest, representing any of its memberships upon their demand, gathering the association dues as well as subscription fixed for the affiliation, and exercising any action linked to the promotion as well as safeguard of the members interest and rights. Strike is the refusal to work which is organized by a body of employees or trade union as a form of remonstration as an attempt to gain concessions or a concession from employers. The strike has been rampant in Oman across the sectors including education, businesses, and health sector just to mention a few (Sunil 2016). The Oman have subsequently established laws relating to the labor disputes as well as regulation of peaceful strikes, however, the strike has remained a topical issue in Oman that requires a comprehensive revisit of strikes against the relevant laws. The labor conflicts settlement of, collective bargaining and nonviolent strikes are overseen by the OLL. It was propagated by Royal Decree 35 of 2003. It has been modified (the Labor Laws). They are also governed by the MD (Ministerial Decision) 294/2006, the MD (Ministerial Decision) supplied pursuant to the OLL. The Oman Labor Laws read together with MD provides a procedure for holding strike in Oman. It provides the workers enjoy the right to participate in a nonviolent strike to demand the improvement of conditions of work. Nevertheless, boycotts undertaken by workers employed in organizations that provide necessities or essential services are considered illegal. Together with the Labor Laws, the MD provides the procedure for workers to hold a strike. The workers union or representatives have to issue a written notice of their employees intention to begin strike alongside the planed date of go-slow to the establishment at least three weeks before the commencement of the strike. The notification has to set forth the rationale for holding the strike in addition to the demands for the strikes by the employees. The Ministry of Manpower (MOM) together with relevant local authorities of the government must be furnished with the copy of the notice. Any union or representatives of employees that fail to follow the above forgoing procedure shall render the strike illegal shifting the period of the strike to be regarded as leave without pay. Moreover, a strike shall be called off instantaneously after commencement of the settlement process by the parties in accordance with Article twenty-three of the Ministerial Decision. Legal Issues and Need for Trade Union The legal issues will first to determine whether right procedure was followed by the Oman Private School prior to striking as outlined in Labor Laws as propagated by Royal Decree 35/2003 (the Labor Laws) and MD 294/2006. Once it is determined that the strike was legal, the focus will be determine whether the employer complied with relevant chapters and articles in Labor Laws especially sections on leave, hours of work, salaries, health insurance, and promotion. To this end, let us now look at each issue raised against the provisions of the Labor Laws. From the case, it is clear that the strike was allowed to go and this will only mean that it was a legal strike. The demands raised in the scenario can best be addressed by chapter four of the Oman Labor Laws. Salaries, leaves and working hours are provided for in chapter of the Oman Labor Laws (OLL). Article 50 provides that the Council of Ministers will determine the minimum limit of salaries in accordance with the needs of economic circumstances. Relating this to the demand of the striking private school teachers, it is clear that teachers salaries are currently quite well paid and above the minimum wage and aligns to the economic situations as there is perceived low levels of inflation in Oman. Moreover, the government determines the prices of essential commodities while rents several cases have decreased as a result of oversupply. It is also clear that the wages and salaries were revised two years ago and hence justifying new salaries would be inappropriate for the employers. Based on the scenario, this demand may not see the light. Article 65 provides that employees are entitled to their gross salaries during the holidays of festivals together with occasions that determined by a decision from the Minister. It is, therefore, appropriate for the teachers salaries to be paid over twelve months of the year and not just the ten months that they work since this method has worked well in other countries. Article 67 (paragraph 1-6) provides that employees are entitled to special leave with gross salary. Chapter four part III provides the hours of work in Oman. Article 68 provide that employs might not be essential to work for over nine hours a day and for a maximum of 48 hours a week excluding the periods outlined for taking rest and food. Relating this section to demand for shortened teaching day. The fact is that teachers already have quite short teaching day since they only have approximately 5 contact hours per day which is within the hours provided under article 68. Moreover, teachers do not undertake Extra Curric ular Activities after school since children head home by 1 p.m. Provision of good buses is matter than will ensure safety as provided for under chapter six of OLL (industrial safety). Article 87, 88, 89 and 90 of the OLL details how both employer and employees need to ensure industrial safety. It is, therefore, illegal for the overcrowding buses and being potentially dangerous. The demand is legal and there is a need for good buses for students to make sure each student has a seat in the bus. The promotion of employees is provided for in Article 28 which leaves this at the discretion of the employer to put in a conspicuous place the regulations of work upon approval by the Ministry including the rules governing the promotion depending on the nature of the work alongside the specification of the salary groups. Therefore, issues with the promotion and raising salaries will be internally solved between employer and the employees. Need for Trade Union Chapter nine of the Oman Labor Laws provides for the formation of the representative committee. Article 108, 109 and 110 provide that employees of a given establishment can form among themselves, a representative committee for the purposes of safeguarding their interest as well as shielding their lawfully recognized rights and representing the employees in every issue relating to employees matters. The employees rights are guaranteed pursuant to Article 108 of the OLL to form trade union. The fundamental right of the workers to perform a trade union is to defend the workers interest and guard their rights as well as improve their materialists and social conditions. Trade union is also to represent employees on every issue pertaining the matters of employees. Article 112 of the Oman Labor Law goes further to spells out the penalties for an establishment that hinders the workforces from undertaking their activities and prohibits the establishment of the trade unions or the General Federation of employees. Such an employer shall be penalized by imprisonment for a period not beyond one month as well as a fine of not more than RO 500 or of either consequences. A trade union is, therefore, a viable option to solve the dispute between employees (private school teachers) and employer in this case. As provided under the Oman Labour Laws (Article eight of the 2012 MD) a duly registered labor union has a right to exercise various rights during its representation of its members. A trade union will, therefore, be best placed to lodge complaints before a competent department at the MOM emerging from the organizations non-adherence to the OLLs provision together with the implementation of decisions together with regulations of the establishment. The trade unions will also peruse the OLL together with its implementation decision and regulations thereby guaranteeing the rights as well as interests of the employees at the organization. The trade unions will also acquire all the essential resources from the organization for the performance of its activities alongside the suitable premises for undertaking the establishments meetings as well as storing its documents (Al-Sayegh 2002). Since most of the demands by private school teachers including need for bringing back females teachers to schools near to their homes, promotion of teachers every four years, raising teachers based on performance, raising salaries, curriculum change, providing nurseries for teachers children, and providing gym for students per school are not compelled by the OLL, the labor union can best bargain for these demands ethically and not legally since, the employer stand to win the legal battles. Moreover, the trade union boost the collective bargaining power leading to a collective labor agreement (CLA). Article five of the MD 294 of 2006 provides that once CLA has been concluded between the private school teachers and the employer, the employer has the duty to display the CLA conspicuously at the workplace. Legality of the Private Teachers Strike The f labor disputes settlement, collective haggling as well as peaceable strikes are overseen by the OLL and the Ministerial Decision. According to OLL and MD, the strike was, therefore, legally declared by the private school teachers to demand for their interest and welfare. It is legal since some of the demands are justified and hence they are protected by law to demand the welfare, for example, the need to ensure that good buses are put in place and that each child gets a seat in the bus is logical to ensure safety as outlined in Article 87, 88, 89 and 90 of the OLL. It is, also, clear that the teachers followed the right procedure for holding strike. For example, the employers were given a written notice at least three weeks before the strike with detailed list of fourteen demands, intention to hold strike as well as reasons for holding the strike and planned date for the strike. Also, the relevant government authorities and the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) were notified and given the written notice alongside the demands and reasons. The teachers, therefore, complied with the set procedures before commencing their strike and hence giving its legal nature (Al-Hamadi and Budhwar 2006). Dispute Settlement Procedure under OLL The employer has two options to settle industrial dispute under OLL in case of an illegal strike. An illegal strike will a attract dare consequences based on two options available for the employer (Singer 2006). The proprietor can file an emergency submission to the Competent Court looking for an order that the workers get back to work awaiting the result of the Court decisions on the underlying matter. The employer can also take action under the provision of Article forty of the Clause 8 that provides for the employees dismissal without prior notice in case of committal of a severe break of his obligation to accomplish his duties as provided in his employment agreement. In case of the legal strike, the employer and the employee or their representatives (trade union) will have to sit down and bargain a CLA. Conclusion Strike is common in Oman economy across all sectors including education, PDO and health just to mention a few. The OLL read together with the MD provides the procedures for holding legal strike in Oman. Nevertheless, it is illegal to hold strike for those employees who provide necessities (Al-Hamadi, Budhwar and Shipton 2007). Trade union is also legal in Oman and employers get penalized in case they prohibit employees from forming trade unions and exercising their rights. The employee-employer relationships in Oman is not good as can be witnessed by rampant strikes in Oman across the sectors. Article 24 of OLL outlines that the maximum probationary period for employees three months. It provides that either employer or employee can dismiss the agreement during the probationary time by providing other party at least seven days notice. Some of the probable practices that need to be followed to enhance the employment relation between private school teachers and their employer is to allow the teachers form a trade union which will represents them in all matters pertaining to their affairs. This ensure that negotiations go on simultaneously with teaching without disrupting the learning process. Also, the employers should include the teachers in policies and decision making so as to reduce change resistance. References Al-Hamadi, A.B. and Budhwar, P.S., 2006. Human resource management in Oman. 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Employing Alternative Dispute Resolution: Working at Finding Better Ways to Resolve Employer-Employee Strife. NDL Rev., 72, p.299. Sunil K. Vaidya, B. C., 2016. Petroleum Development Oman employees seek recognition of new union to serve employees' interests. Gulf News Oman, 1(Strike ), pp. 1-4. HYPERLINK ""